Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Potentially Toxic Substances in Singed and Unsinged Cow Skin from Selected Abattoirs Consumed in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Singed and unsinged cow skin (pelts), from four slaughter houses (Ishiodu, Eliozu, Rumuosi, and Rumuodumaya); sold and consumed in Portharcourt, Rivers State city - were evaluated for the concentration of PAHs, TPH and heavy-metals, using GC/FID and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively and the outcomes were then exposed to statistical examination (Spearman connection coefficient framework and One-Way ANOVA) to decide critical distinction between the singed and unsinged samples utilizing SPSS programming bundle (form 20.0). The total PAHs and TPH of singed cattle pelts were 0.023, 0.031, 0.035, and 0.035 mg/kg; 1.63, 2.16, 2.52, and 2.62 mg/kg for Ishiodu, Eliozu, Rumuosi, and Rumuodumaya slaughter houses respectively, of which the unsinged pelts and edible-flesh were pointedly (p<0.05) higher than the singed samples. The Fe, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Pb contents were pointedly beyond the passable boundary while Aluminum, Arsenic, and BTEX were not detected. Mercury (Hg) was essentially not identified in singed samples purchased from the slaughter houses with the exclusion of Rumuodumaya (at 0.01mg/kg). The processing procedures aided with certain environmental activities impact negatively on the nutritional content of foods, thus placing consumers at potential wellbeing hazard.

Processing Contaminants, Health Risk, Slaughter, Cow Meat

Omowanle Oluwole Gbenga, Richmond Uwanemesor Ideozu, Charles Ikenna Osu. (2023). Potentially Toxic Substances in Singed and Unsinged Cow Skin from Selected Abattoirs Consumed in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 11(2), 13-18.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Abollino, O., M. Aceto, M. Malandrino, E. Mentasti,, C. Sarzanini, F. Petrella Heavy metals in agricultural soils from Piedmont, Italy. Distribution, speciation and chemometric data treatment. Chemosphere 49 (2002) 545–557.
2. Bartkiene, E., Bartkevics, V., Mozuriene, E., Krungleviciute, V., Novoslavskij, A., Santini, A., et al. (2017). The impact of lactic acid bacteria with antimicrobial properties on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biogenic amines in cold smoked pork sausages. Food Control, 71, 285–292.
3. Dibofori-Orji Amalo Ndu & ThankGod Princess (2018): Analysis of Heavy Metals In Hawked Charcoal Roasted Beef (Suya) Within Port Harcourt Metropolis; European Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry- Vol. 5, No. 2, 2018; ISSN 2398-1385 Progressive Academic Publishing, UK Page 12
4. EC (European Commission), 2002. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the risks to human health of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food. SCF /CS/ CNTM /PAH/ 29 Final, Brussels, 74.
5. Emmanuel, U. D, Uwemedimo, E. U, Godwin, A. E. and Akaninyene, U. U. (2020). Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Singed Capra aegagrus Hircus Meat from Uyo Municipal Abattoir in Southern Nigeria. J. Applied Sci., 20 (2): 67-75, 2020.
6. Kazerouni, N., R. Sinha, Che-Han Hsu, A. (2001). Greenberg, and N. Rothman, Food Chem. Toxicol., 39, 423.
7. Mejborn, H., Hansen, M., Biltoft-Jensen, A., Christensen, T., Ygil, K. H., & Olesen, P. T. (2019). Suggestion for a subdivision of processed meat products on the Danish market based on their content of carcinogenic compounds. Meat Science, 147, 91–99.
8. Nnaji, J. C, Madu, E. S, and Chukwuemeka-Okorie, H. O, (2017). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides and Meat Singed with Scrap Rubber Tyres. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. October 2017 Vol. 21 (6) 1105-1110.
9. Obodoechi, L. O, Ofomata, I. B, Obidike, R. I, and Nwanta, J. A. (2019). Presence and levels of concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in smoked fish, hides and skin of slaughter cattle and goats in Awka urban, Nigeria. Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 11, Issue 2, 14-17.
10. Ofomata I. B., Nwankwo I. O., Ogugua A. J., Ezenduka E. V., Nwanta J. A., Obidike R. I. (2020). Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in hide and skin of slaughtered cattle and goats in Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control. 7: 119-127.
11. Okiei, M., Ogunlesi M., Alabi, F., Osiughwu, B and A. Sojinrin, A. (2009). Determination of toxic metal concentrations in flame treated meat products, ponmo African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 3 (10), 332-339.
12. Olatunji, O. S., Fatoki, O. S., Opeolu, B. O., & Ximba, B. J. (2014). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography–Flame ionization detector. Food Chemistry, 156, 296–300.
13. Osu Charles Ikenna and Asuoha, Adaku Nnenna (2012). Identification And Quantitative Analysis Of Carcinogenic PAH Components In Four Different Species Of Traditionally Smoked Fish Purchased In Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 7 (3): 215-219.
14. Osu Charles I.; E. C. Ogoko And Emeziem D. (2014). Metal Species, Mobility And Bioavailability In An Oil Impacted Soil From Ikoku And Alaoji Automobile Spare Parts Markets, Niger-Delta Nigeria. American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal. 6 (3); 1-12.
15. Otumfuor, (2013). Toxicological and public health implications of the use of scrap rubber tires for smoking meat in developing countries. Proceedings of the African Society for Toxicological Sciences Conference in Conjunction with the 2013 Society of Toxicology Meeting, March 2013, San Antonio, Texas.
16. Oyekunle, J. A. O, Yussuf, N. A, Durodola, S. S, Adekunle, A. S, Adenuga, A. A, Ayinuola, O, Ogunfowokan, A. O, (2019). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic metals in commonly consumed beef sausage roll products in Nigeria. Heliyon 5 (2019) e02345.
17. Pierre MANDA, Djédjé Sébastien DANO, Ehouan Stephane-Joel EHILE, Mathias KOFFI, Ngeussan AMANI and Yolande Aké ASSI (2012); Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in foods sold in Abobo market, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Pr¨ohl G, G. Olyslaegers, B. Kanyar et al., “Development and comparison of five site-specific biosphere models for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal,” Journal of Radiological Protection, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 343–373, 2005.
18. Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz, H., and M. Tarasiewicz, (1999). Polish J. Environ. Stud., 8, 57.
19. Raheel suleman, zhenyu wang, rana Muhammad Aadil, teng hui, David L. Hopkins, Dequan Zhang (2020). Effect of cooking on the nutritive quality, sensory properties and safety of lamp meat: currentchallenginges and future prospect. Meat science, 167, 108-172.
20. Sheldrick, B. H., Wang, C., 1993. Particle-size distribution. In: Martin, R. C. (Ed.), Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. CSSS Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida USA.
21. Singh L., Varshney J. G., Agarwal T. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chemistry. 199: 768-781. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.074] Environmental Sanitation, 7 (3): 215-219.
22. Tiimub Benjamin, Dzifa Afua (2013); Determination of Selected Heavy Metals and Iron Concentration in Two common Fish Species in Densu River at Weija District in Grater Accra Region of Ghana/ American International Journal of Biology 1 (1); July 2013 pp. 45-55; American Research Institute for Policy Development 45
23. TNRCC Method 1006 (1997). Characterization of Nc6 to Nc35 Petroleum hydrocarbons in Environmental samples.
24. USDA (2006). Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report Global Agriculture Information Network Voluntary Report-public distribution GAIN Report Number CH 6064, China Peoples Republic of FAIRS Product. Specific maximum levels of contaminants in Foods, Jim Butterworth and Wu Bugang.
25. US EPA (1994). Health Assessment Document for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. External review draft. EPA report no. 600/6-88/001a-c. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.
26. Wilson, N. R. P. 1981. Meat and Meat Products Factors Affecting Quality Control, Applied Science Bub., London: 150–152.